Anything added to the water we drink is a contamination strongly objected to by many people on grounds that are essentially religious in origin. Hence the recent fuss over fluoridation which is approved by practically all health authori-.
The issue here is merely one of good teeth or bad—though for w'hole communities of children. The same people presumably object to chlorination, only in this case the alternative is epidemic disease, and public welfare therefore reigns supreme. If some of the noise and energy put forth by the squawkers could be directed towards keeping the waters from becoming befouled in the first place it w'ould be more in keeping with their claimed respect for purity.
NFP Brought Me Spiritual Peace | Women Speak For Themselves
The main question now before us is whether any such beliefs should interfere with comparatively new medical practice. Christian Scientists, for instance. The danger exists that medical help may here also be rejected and death result, although in practice Christian Scientists, as a rule being more sophisticated and better educated than Jehovah's Witnesses, play safe by obtaining good medical attention when seriously needed, while giving the credit for cures to their own spiritual procedures.
The fact is that our so-called modern society is imbued with many ancient beliefs of long-forgotten origin, and all religions are by their nature and long history the repositories for old misconceptions as well as new light. When a belief is part of a major religion, even a dominant one, the problem becomes acute, a:, in the matter of birth control so strongly opposed by the Roman Catholic and the Mohammedan religions, not to mention various other but relatively small religious groups.
Opposition is again based upon an implicit belief in the sacredness of the procreative act, that any interference is obstruction of Divine Will and is an evil that cannot be countenanced. Within the Catholic Church there can be no argument concerning this dogma, but it should be pointed out that the Christian Church, as a whole, has inherited from far older religions many concepts that have since become frozen into its fabric, concepts that are as vulnerable as those concerning the significance of blood were it not for the claim to infallibility.
This is explosive territory but so are the practical issues involved. Quite apart from the question of any particular family producing offspring in numbers that injure the health of the mother and the prospects of the individual children, which is serious enough, the greatest threat to the welfare of mankind at large is the prospect of too many human beings, a threat that is far more menacing in the long run than that of nuclear war.
Overpopulation has yet to hit the Americas, least of all. The United Nations has estimated the present human population to be approximately twenty-eight hundred million, which is about five hundred million more than were here just ten years ago.
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The present production rate appears to be the highest on record and by the year , a mere forty years away, the estimate is for five thousand million hungry human beings expecting or hoping for a satisfying life. And that is not any stopping place but only a stage in a human explosion that has no end in sight.
If mankind collectively could put on the brakes even now with a sense of emergency, we would still coast through to that five-thousand-million mark before we came to a population standstill. As it is, with the present accelerated pace, humanity will amount to ten thousand million within the lifetime of individuals now being born and so on until some kind of unforeseen strait jacket calls a disagreeable halt.
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The prospect is disturbing in the extreme and only the most short-sighted view of the future makes it possible to discount it. This may not seem to be of immediate consequence to anyone in particular and it is all too easy to ignore the problem and say let future generations take care of themselves, to say that science has done wonders already and will find ways to feed and house the teeming myriads of the future.
This simply is not so.
Incarcerated pregnant women are shackled in Tennessee. That needs to stop. | Opinion
No matter how ingenious we may be in exploiting and developing food and other resources, we are already lagging behind in the effort to fill stomachs, despite the presence of certain food surpluses in parts of the Western Hemisphere. As food supplies become generally more inadequate and deficient, physical deterioration will progressively appear everywhere—it is only a matter of time.
Man, however, does not live by bread alone, as our religious authorities would be the first to say, and here we find ourselves already embroiled. We are literally in the midst of a human explosion that has been building up for more than a thousand years and is rapidly approaching a climax, with the inhabitable open spaces of the world having virtually disappeared. We are even pathetically looking at our neighboring and climatically hostile planets as places where we might dump our population excesses.
In any case the symptoms of social disorder are already all about us. As towns and cities multiply and enlarge it becomes increasingly difficult to escape from them even for a weekend; no sooner are you out of one than you are into another, or so many people are trying to do the same thing no one gets anywhere. Frustrations multiply accordingly. Children growing to physical maturity in these enormous, infinitely ugly, heavily congested stone jungles are already showing the psychological marks of caged animals—they are embittered, unruly, hopeless and increasingly amoral and savage.
Double, triple, quadruple the number of people, the number of families crowded together, the number of children who are instinctively wanting above all else to grow and develop their unique personalities, and the outcome is inevitable— misery and a general psychotic state of an appalling nature, breeding strife at all levels from individuals to nations and leading to a spiritual deterioration far more serious than the consequences of improperly fed bodies. We can let matters drift and let our grandchildren suffer the consequences—taking the course of inaction.
Olive Byrne met Marston in , when she was a senior at Tufts; he was her psychology professor. Marston was already married, to a lawyer named Elizabeth Holloway. When Marston and Byrne fell in love, he gave Holloway a choice: either Byrne could live with them, or he would leave her. Byrne moved in. Between and , each woman bore two children; they lived together as a family. Holloway went to work; Byrne stayed home and raised the children.
She wore a golden tiara, a red bustier, blue underpants and knee-high, red leather boots. She was a little slinky; she was very kinky. It seemed to Gaines like so much good, clean, superpatriotic fun. Gaines decided he needed another expert. Bender, left with three children under the age of 3, soon became painfully interested in studying how children cope with trauma. In , she conducted a study with Reginald Lourie, a medical resident under her supervision, investigating the effect of comics on four children brought to Bellevue Hospital for behavioral problems.
Tessie, 12, had witnessed her father, a convicted murderer, kill himself. She insisted on calling herself Shiera, after a comic-book girl who is always rescued at the last minute by the Flash. Kenneth, 11, had been raped. That hardly ended the controversy. In episode after episode, Wonder Woman is chained, bound, gagged, lassoed, tied, fettered and manacled. In his original scripts, Marston described scenes of bondage in careful, intimate detail with utmost precision. For a story about Mars, the God of War, Marston gave Peter elaborate instructions for the panel in which Wonder Woman is taken prisoner:.
Put a metal collar on WW with a chain running off from the panel, as though she were chained in the line of prisoners. Between these runs a short chain, about the length of a handcuff chain—this is what compels her to clasp her hands together. At her ankles show a pair of arms and hands, coming from out of the panel, clasping about her ankles. Later in the story, Wonder Woman is locked in a cell.
She holds her neck chain between her teeth. The chain runs taut between her teeth and the wall, where it is locked to a steel ring bolt. Marston shrugged it off. Miss R. And never in psychology. Gaines was troubled. Roubicek, who worked on Superman, too, had invented kryptonite. She believed superheroes ought to have vulnerabilities. Gaines then sent Roubicek to Bellevue Hospital to interview Bender. Bender believes that this strip should be left alone.
Gaines was hugely relieved, at least until September , when a letter arrived from John D. Jacobs, a U. Which is swell, I say.
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Marston was sure he knew what line not to cross. Harmless erotic fantasies are terrific, he said. In , Gaines and Marston signed an agreement for Wonder Woman to become a newspaper strip, syndicated by King Features. Busy with the newspaper strip, Marston hired an year-old student, Joye Hummel, to help him write comic-book scripts. Joye Hummel, now Joye Kelly, turned 90 this April; in June, she donated her collection of never-before-seen scripts and comic books to the Smithsonian Libraries. Her stories were more innocent than his.
Gaines had another kind of welcome to make, too. Marston, Byrne and Holloway, and even Harry G. Peter, the artist who drew Wonder Woman, had all been powerfully influenced by the suffrage, feminism and birth control movements. And each of those movements had used chains as a centerpiece of its iconography. In , in Chicago, women representing the states where women had still not gained the right to vote marched in chains. In general, steps were taken to protect the health of the fetus, not the woman, and as a result, pregnancy became a physical condition that could be both advantageous for the father and harmful to the mother.
In secular medieval culture, one of the primary aims of pregnancy, at least for the male impregnators, was begetting a male heir. When his peasant wife Grisilde bears a daughter rather than a son, Walter views this as a setback and sends the child away. The accuser thus has to give up one of her children, the one called Le Fresne. A lord Gurun falls in love with Le Fresne, but his knights convince him to marry a noblewoman, La Codre, so that he can carry on his lineage. Here, identity and inheritance are directly linked to pregnancy and its result. It functions as a stabilizing force, one that enables the passage of property and the continuation of a family line.
But its value is contingent on its circumstances—outside of wedlock, pregnancy becomes a destabilizer and disinheritor. As a result, the appearance of legitimate paternity was sometimes more important than the actual child itself. In French and English law, codes were written to prevent abortive measures by men and women alike. Fiona Harris-Stoertz discusses these laws in relation to male control over female childbirth, which became more prevalent as such codes increased in number.
Penalties were often put in place to protect the sanctity of the fetus: damage to the fetus by striking or killing the mother could result in heavy fines against the accused, and fines were often heavier if the child was killed rather than the mother. Generally speaking, less attention was paid to the health and well-being of the woman. In fact, men tended to be more suspicious of women than supportive. Law codes portrayed women as untrustworthy, ready and willing to falsify pregnancies, abort the child, or take advantage of the father.