Slip and velocity ratio: Ratio of driver shaft speed to the driven shaft speed is called velocity ratio. Various phenomena such as slip, creep, and polygonal effect can change the velocity ratio. A mechanical drive that provides constant velocity ratio is called positive drive. Belt drive, being a friction drive, is prone to slip. Slip in this context indicates any one or both among two cases— i the driver shaft is rotating but the belt is not rotating, and ii the belt is rotating but the driven shaft is not rotating.
Every friction drive is prone to slip and thus it cannot provide constant velocity ratio non-positive drive. Engagement drives are free from ship; however, they may not necessarily provide constant velocity ratio. Chain drive is not affected by slip but the polygonal effect in chain can hamper velocity ratio in a small extent. Gear drive can be considered as a the only positive drive. Protection against overloading: Sometimes load on the driver shaft abruptly increases beyond the permissible limit. This may occur due to various reasons such as breakage of cutter, error in calculation, sudden jamming in one part of the machine, etc.
Inherent slip in friction drives can protect the driver element electric motor from overload in driven shaft. Whenever load increases beyond maximum capable limit, slip occurs automatically. Such isolation facility is not available in engagement drives. Thus there exist high chance that any element may damage permanently.
For example, the chain may break or the teeth of the gear may brake catastrophically. In extreme cases, the prime mover may also damage.
Power transmission capacity: Capability of every friction drive is limited by the frictional force acting between two contact surfaces. Accordingly, frictional characteristics of contact surfaces, initial tension, and angle of wrap play crucial role in defining the power transmission limit. Slip occurs inherently whenever this limit exceeds. Thus friction drives are not suitable for heavy power transmission. On the other hand, strength of the concerned elements such as gear teeth or sprocket teeth primarily defines the power transmission limit in engagement drives.
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Friction force has no role here. These drives can be advantageously utilized for heavy power transmission. Lubrication: Friction drives require occasional lubrication only. In fact, more than desired lubrication is not recommended as it increases slip, which results in unnecessarily fluctuation of velocity ratio and force on the bearings. Heat generation and wear are not significant factors in such drives.
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On the contrary, engagement drives generate sufficient heat and undergo gradual wear. Thus lubrication is highly desired here. Chain drive requires frequent lubrication; whereas, gear drive mostly require full lubrication. Accordingly maintenance cost is higher in engagement drives. Power loss and efficiency: Loss of power due to friction and slip makes the friction drives less efficient. Engagement drives can provide higher efficiency due to proper lubrication reduced friction and less power loss.
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Scientific comparison among friction drive and engagement drive is presented in this article. The author also suggests you to go through the following references for better understanding of the topic. Skip to content. Table: Difference between friction drive and engagement drive Friction Drive Engagement Drive Here power and motion transmission occurs by means of friction between two parts. Here power and motion transmission occurs due to successive engagement and disengagement of toothed parts. Friction drives are prone to slip.
So they cannot provide constant velocity ratio.
Engagement drives are free from slip. They can provide constant velocity ratio if other factors are not affecting it. Slip in friction drive can protect the prime mover such as electric motor from overloading on driven shaft.
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In absence of slip, engagement drives cannot protect the motor from overloading. Friction drives are not suitable for heavy torque or power transmission. Engagement drives can transmit high torque or power. Friction drives require occasional lubrication.
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